Revista: CCCSS Contribuciones a las Ciencias Sociales
ISSN: 1988-7833


Autores e infomación del artículo

Edilson Cavalcante de Oliveira Júnior

Edvânia Tôrres Aguiar Gomes

Federal University of Pernambuco, Brazil


Located within the historical city of Olinda in the Brazilian state of Pernambuco, the Urban Forest Reserve Mata do Passarinho is marked by several actions of environmental degradation, in order of being surrounded by many communities in an extreme situation of socioeconomic vulnerability. In its history, were constant invasions by housing purposes, illegal fires, removal of biological material and irregular disposal of solid waste. As a small green territory, the Mata do Passarinho suffers constant pressure that affects its biodiversity and environmental resilience, damaging the ecological, geomorphological and the water balance of the area, an important protected territory although greatly reduced. This scientific paper seeks to bring a brief history of the Reserve well as the discussion of its environmental and legal characteristics, the experience of environmental shared management process established by responsible government agents between the civilian, establishment and business sectors, including up notes about the ways of governance in Brazil, directions to mitigate the present socioenvironmental problems and possible applications to the Urban Forest Reserve Mata do Passarinho.

KEYWORDS: environmental degradation, environmental shared management, governance, nature and society, urban forest

Para citar este artículo puede uitlizar el siguiente formato:

Edilson Cavalcante de Oliveira Júnior y Edvânia Tôrres Aguiar Gomes (2015): “Lessons of governance and environmental shared management within the city: the urban forest reserve Mata do Passarinho in Pernambuco, Brazil”, Revista Contribuciones a las Ciencias Sociales, n. 28 (Mayo 2015). En línea:


Urban Forest Reserves (FURB) are particularly vulnerable portions of nature, starting by their territorial location. As true environmental enclaves, they are necessarily surrounded by nearby urban tissue, bordering them, which often come to the entries or fences of these types of protected territories. They are under the legal protection of State Law No. 13.787 (Pernambuco, 2009), which established the State System of Conservation Units (SEUC). By the time, it was recognized as an advance in terms of legal systems for environmental protection.

The FURB Mata do Passarinho, located at the Pernambuco's municipality of Olinda, is one of the few Conservation Units of its kind in the whole state. Having gone through extreme situations by successive degradation actions, it is experiencing today, by the joint efforts of government official, civil and enterprises, innovative actions of shared environmental management. These strategies take place in a time of governance crisis, where the State, no longer the only holder of knowledge and implementation tools, needs, at the risk of political inflexibility, the articulation with the other society sectors, in a process of not hierarchical or centralized implementation design, management and public policies evaluation. To this, we name governance (Jacobi et al., 2012).

This paper aims to describe and analyze the Mata do Passarinho's trajectory and its relations with environmental management practices and thus to governance, bringing other smaller but significant contributions as the history rescue of such Reserve, challenges and plans to a socially shared environmental management as an ally platform of full, fair and efficient governance.



The history of Mata do Passarinho lacks satisfactory official records, possibly because of its location in a suburb area of little political and economic importance. Most of the information comes through oral testimonies of the area's oldest inhabitants, which in addition to the danger of personal memory reliability it also offers the even more damaging risk of forgetfulness through generations.

The recent FURB Mata do Passarinho's Management Plan (SEMAS et al., 2013) gather the efforts for the memories conservation, both from social agents and government, through a brief listing of information about the history and existence of the Conservation Unit. Is possible to known that, e.g. the earliest memory is that the area represented a unique and huge private property, which can lead us to imagine that in many years prior to this recall such "property" could event include another nearby FURB, the Mata de Dois Unidos, as a single green organism, protecting the course of the Beberibe River, before the degrading anthropogenic advances.

The former owner of the area received the Colonel's degree, more an allusion to the landowner system than to a military rank. The colonels of Brazilian Northeast were known to take over and maintain huge lands due to their economic and political power. They were also violent landowners. An appointed keeper of the property, whom lived with wild animal and the livestock production, were always armed, fitted in the Coronelismo's landowner system. He kept the area closed to the community, which it also consisted in a one country road, a soccer field, a fountain and considerable margins in extension of the Beberibe River. There are reports of the existence of a coffee plantation and many bamboo occurrences in swampy zones.

Mata do Passarinho has an important part of its territory under the influence of slopes. However, it has stable and flat portions both above and below such geomorphic trait. During the 1980s, the upper part of the forest suffered the first degradation process accelerated by anthropogenic direct influence: deforestation, clay removal and fires to irregular housing installations. By the time the State quickly destroyed the illegal occupations, and the news that it would take over the area made a further increase of the degradation process intensity. People ran to the site to ensure some land before the area would be strictly closed. Plastic materials, trees and exotic animals have been mixed with the local biodiversity, originally of the Mata Atlântica's ecosystem.

In 1987 the State performed the feared territory taking, by establishing an Ecological Reserve. The populist government of Miguel Arraes chose to recognize the invaders residents as legitimate possessors, even if they did not receive legal documents. The idea of the Ecological Reserve ended up not consolidated because the public power presence has always been scarce in the area, both by provision of basic services or by the implementation of its proposals.

For over a decade, the natural heritage found itself attacked. Dismemberment processes and lots installment plans were limited by the Municipality of Olinda (PMO) in their first moments. By the intensification of pressures, about 600 families settled in the area, causing again the removal of natural material and use of clay for embankment. It is said that Mata do Passarinho's total size was reduced by 30% of its total, which is evidenced by the photos of municipal files. A large repressive State action was required, with the PMO participation, the State Public Ministry (MPPE), the State Environmental Agency (CPRH), the Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources (IBAMA) and the Independent Company of Environmental Policing (CIPOMA) of the Military Police of Pernambuco (PMPE). The population was removed and the green perimeter restored.

In 1998 the PMO issued a decree that made 11,27ha a public utility area for expropriation. A decade later, a parcel of just over half a hectare was expropriated to be added to Mata do Passarinho's territory, making a total of 0.31% of the entire city of Olinda. During that time, the now recognized neighborhood of Passarinho began receiving urbanization projects. In the following years establishment projects of the Conservation Unit were drawn up again. Fences were built, along monitoring facilities for the CIPOMA and structures for development of environmental and educational activities. At the time there was a closer approximation between the PMO, CIPOMA and the area, effecting more ostensive inspections, development of projects about participation of the elderly and school community, as well as a phytosociological survey by the Federal Rural University of Pernambuco (UFRPE). The construction of housing project near the Reserve also began, which now is abandoned, serving as home for activists of the Fight for Ceiling Movement (MLT) for some years. It is also a place of tensions between society and nature, a common feature in natural environments embedded within urban formations.

Between 2004 and 2009 the consolidation of Mata do Passarinho as an important Conservation Unit suffered some setbacks. The public power's growing distance brought problems again such as irregular disposal and accumulation of solid waste, illegal fires, erosion by drainage problems, no agreement renewal with CIPOMA, ending of the public activities by deteriorating infrastructure, vandalism, dangerous trails and human capital withdraw.

Again in need of recovery and emergency plans, the Mata do Passarinho was rescued by the state government this time, which through funds and own secretaries revitalized the physical facilities and solved problems in the order to resume environmental education activities. Management, handling and sustainability studies have been suggested, which did not materialize. In 2011, the CIPOMA departure was carried out and once again the activities threatened in the security aspect. The reconstructions were complete only in 2012, a year after the Mata do Passarinho was able to re-enter the state environmental law, within the SEUC's scope, categorized as a Urban Forest Reserve Unit of Management and Sustainable Use, by the State Law n° 14.324 (Pernambuco, 2011).

For effective implementation of the FURB Mata do Passarinho, took office in 2012 the advisory management council of equal participation between the State and civil society organizations. There was also the elaboration of a Management Plan, one of the few in the Pernambuco state, which has important biological surveys, geo-referenced zoning and conservation activities with schedule, division of responsibilities, goals, prohibited and tolerated uses for each part of the Reserve.


The Mata do Passarinho has a typical amphitheater form on a group soil called Pernambuco Barriers, mostly of a little consolidated sedimentary formation with sand and clay of different proportions, with big influence from continent and sea, common to the whole Brazilian coast (Nunes et al., 2011). Such conditions and locations coincide and contributed to the consolidation of the Atlantic Forest biome. Its soil, highly susceptible to erosion, has many drainage lines. The water infiltration happens in a very easy way, contributing to the large amount of groundwater easily drilled in the neighborhood (Coelho, 1997).

From its soil and biological evidence the Mata do Passarinho proves to be a secondary fragment, now in middle stage of regeneration, mainly by processes of degradation and injection of exotic species, being a coastal forest with direct attraction by the Beberibe River. Today the green part of the Reserve presents a low diversity, which consists primarily of woody plants with a taste for sunlight. Are a constant the approximately 50 identified woody species native and exotic plants, such as the embaúbas, dendês, ingá-cipós, jaqueiras, jatobás, macaíbas, mangueiras, pitangueiras and visgueiros. The FURB holds a large number of fruit trees, so is not uncommon conflicts between the community and the administration, since entrances to collect these food are constant but not allowed. However, there is a lack of data and survey about bushes, herbs and other smaller plants. There is also the problem of the unauthorized night incursion for african-brazilian religious rituals, which the remains are capable to cause contamination, unwanted attraction of animals or even fire and irregular waste disposal.

The Reserve's reduced land area is not too much of a home for a fauna diversity, which is in disagreement with the normal state of coastal forests, where are found a large number of carnivores, mammals, bats and rodents of all sizes .Nevertheless, even if the Mata do Passarinho's ecological imbalance is huge, there are many amphibians, arachnids, reptiles and also the perceived presence of mammals such as sloths, foxes, small monkeys and rodents. Insects of many kinds are also abundant there. Despite having a large dam, the site does not record any fish at all, because of a severe eutrophication.

The FURB is surrounded by at least three communities in socioeconomic vulnerability, namely the neighborhoods of: Caixa D'Água, Passarinho and Alto da Bondade; plus three more important communities, but not immediately close, namely the neighborhoods of: Dois Unidos, Córrego do Abacaxi e Beberibe. The populations are nearly 52000 inhabitants with low levels of life quality and development (IBGE, 2011).

Legally, Conservation Units are parts of territory defined by the government, with important environmental resources and legal guarantees of protection. Within the SEUC normative form, the Mata do Passarinho is defined as a Unit for Sustainable Use, meaning that it aims to reconcile nature conservation actions with the sustainable use of its natural resources fraction. Within this group, eight subgroups are divided, one of them for the FURBs.

The relevant legislation considers a FURB as a remaining area of an ecosystem, i.e. survivor of environmental degradation processes, being exotic species tolerated if the prevalence is still of native species. The location within the city is essential in this categorization, whether by public or private areas. The surrounding pressure, even if large, shall not suppress the significant environmental attributes of these Conservation Units of Management and Sustainable Use.

The Mata do Passarinho is one of eight FURBs located in the Metropolitan Region of Recife, the state's capitol, and the only in the city of Olinda, with a few hundred meters from the also unique Recife's FURB, the Mata de Dois Unidos. The municipality of Olinda consists of more than 98% of an essentially urban tissue, while Recife is practically all urbanized.

By law, the FURB must provide environmental services in the urban perimeters, i.e. functions and benefits derived from ecosystems (Constanza et al., 1997). The climate, water, and pedological balance, pollution reduction and shelter for animals and plants are listed as some of these services, very important for the urban life quality. The FURB shall also encourage the development of environmental education and leisure activities, prioritizing the community inclusion in these actions. Interaction, identification and sense of belonging between these two points, FURB and community, is crucial to the success of the Reserve's recovery and the shared management process, including needs, utilities and responsibilities for both parts involved: the FURB as a provider of environmental services and the community as its protector through the attraction, appropriation and identification as conservation strategies.


A change in thinking is now notice, when

responsibilities and complementarily division notions between federal, state and local powers gain importance, accompanied by discussions about the role of social actors in the reformulation of public policies and the reordering of sector and regional demands [Cunha et al., p. 53, 2008).

This is the third stage of the Brazilian society and the constituted State relationship. If, during the 1970s, there was opposition from the civil organization to the State's model and praxis, today we are in a time of plurality, dating from the late 1990s, as a real change of paradigms, surpassing the intermediary stage of social movement cooptation and significant loss of representation (Nascimento, 1997). Shared management is one of the new types of interactions exponents, now ambiguous and complex.

The SEUC, such as all the Brazilian environmental legislation in general, is entirely based on principles and standards of protection, covering anthropogenic agents, biological diversity elements and renewable resources. Besides the items that have, e.g. the recovery of water resources, landscape valorization and prioritization of threatened ecosystems, there are also the important additions of scientific research promotion, socio-economic valuation of biological diversity, contact with nature, livelihoods of traditional populations and especially the society involvement, ensuring the effective participation of local populations in the implementation and managements of protected areas, seeking the support of private organizations too.

The shared environmental management can be analyzed as a governance tool, one of the ways for it to happen. Together, they shall seek for the FURBs what state laws classifies as nature conservation: maintenance and ecosystem restoration, sustainable use of renewable natural resources and satisfaction of human, fauna and flora needs. The handling comes as another instrument, being the practical component of the socially politicized management, understanding all procedures to ensure biological diversity and natural resources. Hence all protected area has the need to formulate a management plan, which is a technical document that establishes the area zoning, its objectives and standards needed to carry the environmental procedure of handling and management.

Governance enters the political scene as a new way to govern, which admits participation of agents before strangers to political decision-making, but not just to govern, but to think and plan actions, from the multiplicity, another form of action, control, common objectives even intervention (Kooiman, 1993. Rhodes, 1997). The linkage and interdependence of conventional State organization with the civil sphere voluntary solidarity and the efficiency thought of private sector bring combinations never before addressed in problem solving, achieved now by a complete vision. The stakeholders, who are the involved and interested parties, have as the biggest challenge "move toward agreements based on common points that can produce advances in strengthening public policy processes (...)" [Jacobi et al., p. 1471, 2012].

However, the Brazilian environmental praxis as well as in the world, is under threat by economic groups and lobby pressure. This is how the Bancada Rural, the parliamentary set of agribusiness defenders in Brazil, is growing every year in the politics. Or, how areas not regulated yet as protected territories suffer deliberate degradation for productive activities installations. Even the legislative drafting feels the effects, when it allows that companies could produce environmental liabilities, such as pollution and deforestation. They are permitted to compensate the nature and society in another time and place, sometimes as low-impact actions like planting tens of just a couple of trees species. Is missing for Brazil

certain elements necessary for a successful environmental governance. (...) The Brazilian public policies tend to include the promotion of economic growth - under the guise of development - before anything else, despite the official discourse commitments on ecological sustainability (Cavalcanti, p. 1, 2004).

The social participation in Brazilian governance experience different channels from the institutional framework of participatory democracy drawn by the 1988 Constitution. If at the first glance only popular movements, unions and parties raised this flag, today the society has municipality management councils of public policy to advice in areas such as security, health, education and environment, this one especially after the enactment of the National System of Protected Areas (SNUC). Although Brazil not being a great example of advanced participatory culture, the claiming for direct participation and social control are permitted (Carvalho, 1998).

Still, it is necessary to see the possible contradiction in dialectical relation between society and State, especially its ambiguous agreements, if set by vertical route, direction from top to bottom, not the conquered by fighting movements of the most vulnerable sector. Social participation carries the risk of being imposed as a form of authoritarian division of onus, from different contexts. In the first context, the divided burden comprises public policies doomed to failure, stranded or impossible, e.g. a security council in a territory of socioeconomic vulnerability, where the resolution of crime problems would been linked to deeper issues and out of the council's reach, beyond simple patrolling strategies. Thus, the State not takes himself only as the blamed for failure, exempting itself from its obligations as a coordinating agent and policy performer, the main responsible in the search for effective solutions .It takes advantage of a time of "apparent inability of public institutions in efficiently handle the growing urban problems" (Frey, p. 138, 2007).

The second context, softer but yet very pernicious, is the promotion of councils as a ratification instance of a decision made at earlier time at another board. This way, citizens are seen as incompetent in making strategic decision and complex planning, serving only to the false illusion of participation and helping to maintain a conservative distribution of power that chokes innovative initiatives (Frey, 2001. Rocha et al., 2005). Participation here is not democratic by not allowing directions unforeseen, changes or influences on policies and planning, being very limited to its subordinated role to strategic proponents of higher instances, masking the reality because "the rhetoric of participation is based on the assumption that it is always positive and rejects the idea that it can be manipulative, depending on the emphasis of the course" (Costa et al., p. 93, 2009), plus the feeling of complete consensus cooperation, not a arena of interests conflict, since so ideologically different agents would not have their asymmetries easily disregarded, in addition to coercion atmospheres caused by individual subjects or groups that hold greater force. "While this incompatibility of demands and intentions is not recognized by the participants, the conflict remains latent, legitimized by an ideological justification (...)” (Vossole, p. 156, 2013).

The crisis of representative democracy, evaluated as the replacement of the way of people governing to the way of governing the people, promotes the claims of greater inclusion in decision-making processes, since "it is a politically more feasible option to selectively elect this or that part of the city, and/or particularly this or that part's section (...)” (Gomes, p. 178, 2008). As a democratic system, the legitimacy is necessary to guarantee the channels existence needed for social participation. The bureaucracy, technocracy and lack of efficiency brought the evil of society de-politicization, solved only by the remedy of taking the political destiny into own hands, where each individual receives the same importance as others. The governance and shared management experiences are an exercise of a mixture of direct, deliberative and liquid democracy, thus that still should not be restricted to its collegiate, because it is "needed to invest in forms of participation capillarity in addition to the representatives present at the council, to be incorporated into the strengthening the relation of representative-represented – group" (Loureiro et al., p. 248, 2008), thus increasing the possibility of participation of more involved stakeholders, rights holders and legitimacy to do so. The return to democracy and the discussions revival avoids a post-political scenario structured around an inevitable capitalism and the economy market as the only socioeconomic organization structure (Swyngedouw, 2010).

To truly democratic, autonomous, decentralized, transparent, fair and balanced governance, all social, governmental or private agents are involved and represented, especially those most affected by the decisions. The information exchange is more sensitive in ways that go beyond projects planning, bringing credibility and satisfaction. However, the decision-making process is a slow and complex work that can sometimes lead to false paths from misinformation of those involved, either by limited knowledge or bad faith. The uncertainty is mixed with the frequent change of representatives, and as shown by experiences, the population disinterest, who prefers to be ruled and not to govern, even taking into discredit all the political processes. Seemingly full of obstacles, the decentralized construction, the democratic planning and shared management build together the foundations of governance, a logic that, even not possibly being the best way, is the only one which preserves the right of citizenship and involvement of all stakeholders, even the freedom of not wanting to participate (Canter, 1998. Jacobi, 2003), as participation is not something that may be imposed but learn, at risk of misrepresenting the results by dissatisfaction.

Even provided by SNUC regulations, most of the 1600 protected areas of the country still lack councils of decision, management, control or advisory. The government itself takes the insufficient local participation as a form of social exclusion, characterized by inefficient communication, lack of law clarity, sufficiently defined procedures and financial resources (IBAMA, 2007. MMA, 2004). About the resources, it refers to that destined to council's operations. Even though studies (Magalhães et al., 2010) bring examples that counselors has education and income above the average Brazilian, it is necessary to think about a possible regulation of this position, like their own salaries, as well as less exclusively choice mechanisms, since the member appointed by the communities are usually those already with more political party engagement. This attitude would contribute for the training of counselors, not towards the technocratic rule of past decades, since the counselors would remain part of local communities, only better prepared in terms of perception and environmental legislation. The benefit of remuneration for a regulated position would also have obligations not carried in the current model, when e. g. is huge the absence of many advisers in meetings.

Complementing, more support guarantee, communication, training, mobility infrastructure and fixed spaces of conviviality would transform each management council from a mere point required by law to a real and conscious body of collective construction, always combined with the modern society triangle: State, civil and business organization.


Based on the considerations that nature conservation is strongly linked to mitigation of environmental problems, and that these, in urban environments, are fully connected with the territory's social context, thus is necessary the presence of interdisciplinary public policies, more particularly related to commitment and social participation, e.g. environmental shared management. Intervention and adaptation of old strategies for special areas conservation is required, at the risk of irreversible degradation and loss of environmental resilience, i.e. the ability of an ecosystem to resist and recover, reestablishing its balance after disturbances (Holling, 1973).

Through workshops, consultations and meetings, many strategies have been developed in conjunction between government sectors, civil society organizations and on a smaller scale, the private sector. Several educational, religious, health, community and environmental protection associations participated along with the ecological secretaries of the local and state governments, having by primordial guidelines the democracy, inclusion, implementation, adaptability and systemic approach. This process can be decomposed as a plural initiative, regardless socioeconomic status, always looking for materiality, dynamism and transparency of the plans and actions, never seeing parts alone, in a pioneering initiative for the Mata do Passarinho.

Empowerment of society through the promotion of social control and the management council as the legitimate authority in the FURB control is the main direction in shared management. Learning and dissemination of knowledge are collective and constant, where each agent has its peculiarities and responsibilities, leaving it clear in the Management Plan construction workshops. The identification of potential and vulnerability is one of the items that most benefit from the diverse participation, as each one covers a different view angle of the problem set.

Using SWOT analysis – Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats –, several positive aspects were identified, such as the role of government in the Reserve's administration, the existence of the Management Plan, physical structures and the prospect of greater integration of the local community in the management process. The identified and perceived vulnerabilities were the lack of surveillance, small resilience to fire and other degradation types making it truly fragile to threats in an auto-restraint manner and the presence of many exotic species and little scientific interest for the area.

However, the management council can been viewed as an advisory board only or a validation character of the thought policies, designed and instituted in the Conservation Unit, when it should be the highest deliberative and decentralized authority, respecting the environmental regulatory guidelines and responding to the regulatory and supervisory secretaries. The current model has in the most cases the management council as a different board than the management bureau, where the real decisions are taken, so it is needed to readjust questions regarding legality and autonomy.

The differences between the management council and the management bureau are nearly the differences between the approaches of shared and integrated management. The last one, supported on the scope of the management bureau, is more limited in number of participants and fed by information provided by other social agents. Thus, there is no two-way feedback and collective and constructive exchange. The actions are taken aimed to a more emergency and short-term character, as an intermediate and nebulous step between the aspects of administrative or technical-bureaucratic management for the evolution of shared management (Silva et al., 2003). In one of these models, the figure of the central manager, who has the final word, is almost unreachable, while the other model, all from their motivated individuals, represents the mass of a decision transformed into uniform thanks to the democratic process.

Two paradigms were discussed in the Mata do Passarinho's environmental zoning: the territory as it is presented and the territory as it could be. The involvement of different agents, even if sometimes under antagonistic positions, is able to measure and classify the internal areas of a FURB or any other type of protected area.

In Mata do Passarinho, the environmental zoning, i.e. the definition of parcels with their specific norms, objectives and use permissions, was categorized into zones and sectors. The first classified the territories within the expected use of a FURB and the last classified the territories facing more adaptation problems.

The zones are divided into Natural Environment, corresponding to the Reserve's ecological center of full protection; Anthropogenic Use, where are admitted human interactions and activities such administration and regular visitation; and finally the Special Attention with a range of 10 meters wide focused on monitoring and minimizing external impacts, solely with the limits and boundaries of Mata do Passarinho. The sectors are divided into Restoration, which requires special attention to return its natural conditions; and the Land regularization, now privately owned, built and inhabited area, in process of being incorporated into public property.

The Management Plan efforts also defined the so-called Autonomous Activities and Integrated Activities, being the first developed under the burden of the management council and the management bureau only. The last are those developed in partnership with other public and private agents. Both understand the axes of managements and monitoring, environmental restoration, scientific research, environmental education and integration, environmental control and economic support resources.


All local population, State and private agencies are expected to have a participatory posture, so the general objectives of the Reserve can be met. Upgrade and development of new documents that give action bases to combat the main problem of FURB Mata do Passarinho's shared environmental management is essential, that being the local population included in a socioeconomic context of vulnerability, environmental issues or even the use and concern for such spaces shall be subordinated to problems of more immediate importance, such as housing and food security. This distance of the shared management can be reversed through the social appropriation of nature and thus conflicts reductions (Leff, 2009). Each location "has their proper constraints and opportunities. (...) It is essential to define in each context which traits are really necessary (...). This effort involves the knowledge of local realities, their culture, their biophysical environment (...)” (Fonseca et al., p. 37-38, 2009).

There are three key steps to a successful shared management: awareness, organization and finally the transformer stage of realities. These key steps are furthered by the knowledge built and discussed, published and communicated through their own involvement already mobilized which reaches various society classes. Social cohesion is necessary to overcome the most commonly pointed problems (Nogueira et al., 2012), like the misunderstanding the role of the management council, entities disengagements, unnecessary political pressure, devaluation of the discussions and decisions and even the unfamiliarity of local communities. Each territory has sufficient social capital from the multiplicity of its members to reverse critical status and to establish a network of valued relations.

The authors wish to thank everyone that contributed to the research which this paper came from, a Master’s thesis in Environmental Subjects, specially the development of environmental shared management, financed by the support of Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES foundation). The individuals, either from communities or government, were essential to the success.


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Publicado: Mayo de 2015

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