Tesis doctorales de Economía

 

TURISMO, CRESCIMENTO E DESENVOLVIMENTO: UMA ANÁLISE URBANO-REGIONAL BASEADA EM CLUSTER

Jorge Antonio Santos Silva

 

 

 

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ABSTRACT

This thesis had as object the analysis of the condition of tourism, while economical activity, of promoting the growth and the regional development, and under that theoretical-methodological model, structure and configuration. An objective directly linked to the object of the thesis consisted in the analysis of the coherence and property of the application of the cluster concept, formulated by Michael Porter, as well as the one of productive chain, to the activity of tourism, conforming a tourist cluster. In parallel it looked for to examine the condition of a configuration of cluster of tourism to be considered as a model of regional development. Secondarily, but with a direct relationship with the concept of productive chain, it was focused the notion of escapes or leaks of the economy of an area, current of payments made to suppliers located out of the area by the supply of the necessary inputs to the productive structure of the economy of that area. Such leaks provoke a reduction in the magnitude of local or regional retention of the economical results propitiated by the activity of the tourism. The competitiveness and support of the tourist development, in endogenous base, presupposes to immerse the production of such inputs, through the creation of new productive activities and of the invigoration of the already existent, seeking to eliminate strangulation points and implicating in the aggregation of the sectorial linkages, forward and back, that integrate the productive structure of the economy of the region. For the elaboration of this thesis an extensive bibliographical revision was made, in primary and secondary sources, and accomplished an empiric work close to the hostelry of Salvador, capital of the State of Bahia. This experiment sought to evaluate the incidence of escapes in the value of the contribution of the tourism for the economy of Salvador, starting from the hotel net, as well as to identify variables that influence and areas through where happen the leaks, being evidenced that the escapes link directly with problems and difficulties that the hotels find with the local suppliers of goods and services, and also with the size of the establishment and the property of the capital, if place or of national and international chains. The accomplished study allowed to end that for areas economically depressed, the tourism can act as motive activity of economical growth, but without conditions of, separately, to promote the regional development. The cluster model, in Michael Porter's conception, of focus remarkably business and micro economic, characterized by the presence of great industries, of national dimension and with high space width and high aggregation level, it doesn't reply adequately to the tourism and it cannot be considered as a strategy of regional development. The grouping that has the tourism as nuclear activity, with focus in the destiny tourist expert as a micro cluster and that it presents the characteristics of delimitation of the geographical with of its spill, delimitation of the territorial inclusion of the own grouping, delimitation of the main tourist segment and of their sub-segments, as well as of the own target of market, it can be qualified as a cluster of tourism that gathers the conditions of to model strategies and to promote the growth and the development of micro regions or tourist zones. This way, the micro cluster constitutes the model that makes possible the reach and support of the regional development, as a result of the interaction among the specialization function - the tourism, and the territory - the tourist destiny and its spills close.

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