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SISTEMA DE TAREAS CON ENFOQUE METODOLÓGICO PARA LA ENSEÑANZA-APRENDIZAJE DE LA COMPRENSIÓN AUDITIVA EN PRÁCTICA INTEGRAL DE LA LENGUA INGLESA 1

Adrian Abreus González



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ANEXOS

Anexo 1

Encuesta a estudiantes de Primer Año de la

Licenciatura en Lengua Inglesa

Objetivo: Conocer los criterios de los estudiantes sobre las formas de organización que emplea el profesor de PILI 1 para el desarrollo de la comprensión auditiva, así como si existe o no la presencia del enfoque metodológico teniendo en cuenta la labor social de los mismos.

La siguiente encuesta forma parte de una investigación que se lleva a cabo dirigida a mejorar nuestro trabajo con relación al desarrollo de la habilidad de comprensión auditiva y su forma de organización desde un punto de vista metodológico en las clases de PILI 1.

Le rogamos se tome su tiempo y responda las preguntas que a continuación se relacionan con absoluta sinceridad.

1. Marque con una X en cada caso.

1.1) ¿Se realizan en la asignatura PILI 1 tareas relacionadas con el desarrollo la comprensión auditiva en el idioma que estudias?

____ SI _____ NO

• De ser positiva su respuesta, enuncie la periodicidad:

____ En todas las clases.

____ Frecuentemente.

____ Espontáneamente.

____ Nunca.

1.2) ¿Cómo se trabaja el desarrollo de la habilidad auditiva en el aula?

____ Mediante el trabajo dialogado

____ Mediante el trabajo monologado.

____ Mediante completamiento de textos o fragmentos de textos.

____ Mediante ejercicios de enlazar columnas.

____ Mediante ejercicios de Verdaderos o falsos.

____ Mediante preguntas y respuestas relacionadas con la comprensión auditiva.

____Otros ¿Cuáles?______________________________________________

1.3) ¿Consideras necesaria la aplicación de tareas con enfoque metodológico para el desarrollo de la comprensión auditiva en las clases de PILI 1?

____ SI _____ NO

• Justifique su respuesta en cada caso

Anexo 2

Entrevista a docentes de PILI

Objetivo: Conocer las estrategias de aprendizaje relacionadas con la enseñanza de las habilidades auditivas que emplean los docentes, así como explorar el dominio metodológico de este tipo de estrategias, su puesta en práctica y las opiniones sobre el desarrollo de la comprensión auditiva con enfoque metodológico en la formación del profesorado de inglés.

The following interview is part of a research work addressed to develop the first year students’ listening skills with a methodological approach at the Teacher’s College in Cienfuegos.

Would you please take your time and carefully answer the questions below? Be as honest as you can.

1. Taking into account the following learning strategies, select those you consider are most important to develop listening skills in your students.

(a) ___ listening for main idea.

(b) ___ predicting.

(c) ___ drawing references.

(d) ___ summarising.

(e) ___ recognising cognates.

(f) ___ listening for specific details.

(g) ___others ______________________________________________________

______________________________________________________

2. Do you include any activity related to the development of listening skills in your Integrated English Practice lessons?

YES_____ NO ____

2.1 If YES how often?

3. Do you consider that introducing methodological elements in your listening comprehension lessons will make the listening process easier for the students?

YES_____ NO ____

4. Do you consider that providing a methodological approach to the listening tasks in your IEP lessons will contribute not only to the development of listening skills in the students, but also professional skills for encountering with the teaching process?

YES_____ NO ____

Back up your answer in any case:

Anexo 3

Guía de observación

Objetivo. Conocer el estado real de la aplicación por los docentes de actividades relacionadas con la comprensión auditiva en inglés en función del proceso docente en la formación del profesorado de idiomas.

Aspectos a observar:

• Clase observada: _____

• Unidad:____

• Objetivo de la clase:

• Si el profesor presta atención al desarrollo de la comprensión auditiva.

• Qué hace el profesor para desarrollar esta habilidad.

• Metodología aplicada para desarrollar la comprensión auditiva.

• Si se introducen aspectos relacionados con la metodología de la enseñanza de la comprensión auditiva en la asignatura PILI 1.

• Nivel de desarrollo de la comprensión auditiva en los estudiantes.

• El papel del profesor en el aula

• El papel del estudiante en el aula.

Anexo 4

Modelo de organización de tareas en forma de escalera propuesto por Nunan (1999)

Anexo 5

Materiales auditivos que componen el Sistema de tareas con enfoque metodológico

Material Auditivo No. 1: “Teaching Listening”

Listening is the language modality that is used most frequently. It has been estimated that adults spend almost half their communication time listening, and students may receive as much as 90% of their in-school information through listening to instructors and to one another. Often, however, language learners do not recognize the level of effort that goes into developing listening ability.

Far from passively receiving and recording aural input, listeners actively involve themselves in the interpretation of what they hear, bringing their own background knowledge and linguistic knowledge to bear on the information contained in the aural text. Not all listening is the same; casual greetings, for example, require a different sort of listening capability than do academic lectures. Language learning requires intentional listening that employs strategies for identifying sounds and making meaning from them.

Listening involves a sender (a person, radio, and television), a message, and a receiver (the listener). Listeners often must process messages as they come, even if they are still processing what they have just heard, without backtracking or looking ahead. In addition, listeners must cope with the sender's choice of vocabulary, structure, and rate of delivery. The complexity of the listening process is magnified in second language contexts, where the receiver also has incomplete control of the language.

Given the importance of listening in language learning and teaching it is essential for language teachers to help their students become effective listeners. In the communicative approach to language teaching, this means modelling listening strategies and providing listening practice in authentic situations: those that learners are likely to encounter when they use the language outside the classroom.

Tomado de: The Essentials in Language Teaching,

Centro de Recursos de Enseñanza Nacional de Washington (NCLRC),

Material Auditivo No. 2: “Be an Effective Listener!

Five educated, successful professional women are car-pooling to a seminar. It's a two hour drive. The din inside the vehicle is reminiscent of an orchestra tuning up. Several women are talking at once -- each with an idea to express concerning the issue under discussion. When any is determined to make a point, she cranks up her volume, trumping competing ideas with decibel power.

Is any of these women listening? Can any repeat back or summarize the ideas of the other women in the car? Probably not. And if not, what's the point? Competition? Catharsis? Communication it's not -- without listening there is no communication.

Listening Is a Master Skill

Listening is rarely taught in schools because educators (along with almost everyone else) assume listening is tantamount to breathing -- automatic. But effective listening is a skill. Like any other skill, competency in listening is achieved through learning and practice. The scarcity of good listeners is self-perpetuating; if you didn't have good listeners to learn from and (especially) models to emulate, you probably didn't master this "master" skill. Instead, you learned whatever passed for listening in your environment: distracted half-attention, constant interruptions, multi-layered, high-volume, talk-fest free-for-alls with little listening at all.

Barriers to Listening

Listening takes time or, more accurately, you have to take time to listen. A life programmed with back-to-back commitments offers little leeway for listening. Similarly, a mind constantly buzzing with plans, dreams, schemes and anxieties is difficult to clear. Good listening requires the temporary suspension of all unrelated thoughts -- a blank canvas. In order to become an effective listener, you have to learn to manage what goes on in your own mind. Technology, for all its glorious gifts, has erected new barriers to listening. Face-to-face meetings and telephone conversations (priceless listening opportunities) are being replaced by email and the sterile anonymity of electronic meeting rooms. Meanwhile television continues to capture countless hours that might otherwise be available for conversation, dialogue, and listening.

Tomado de “Be an effective listener!” by Diane Schilling, WomensMedia.com

Material Auditivo No. 3: “Using Popular Songs to Improve Language Listening Comprehension Skills”

Are you students sometimes bored in spite of your best efforts? Are you looking for some new and different techniques? Could you use a learning activity that would really wake them up? Would you like to get and keep the students’ interest? Even have them helping you? Then try this classroom-tested technique by using student-selected songs to teach listening comprehension.

Almost everyone loves music. It is a part of our language and life from before birth onwards. As babies, we hear lullabies. As young children we play, sing and dance to a myriad of nursery rhymes. As adolescents, we are consumed by the beat of popular music artists worldwide. As adults, every form of advertising we hear, every special event we experience, is in part, music. Music pervades television, movies, theatre, and even the nightly news. When we exercise, when we work, when we play, when we worship and even when we die, music is there to reinforce or alter or every mood and emotion. A catchy tune is played, hummed or sung, at times in our head, as we go about our everyday lives. So, why not include music and songs in language learning as well?

Factors Contributing to Listening Comprehension of Song

• Use of new vocabulary, idioms and expressions – You’ll need to address the new material offered in each song. This includes grammar, vocabulary and usage.

• Pronunciation and accent of the singer – Every native speaker doesn’t pronounce or sing with the same accent. Students may be exposed to an accent which is outside the realm of what they might normally hear in context.

• Use of new grammar and structure Song writers and singers are notoriously “loose” when it comes to use of grammar, structure, pronunciation, stress and other language factors applied to songs. The teacher must prepare for this.

Three Principal Song Selection Criteria

1. Use songs that are popular with the students whenever possible. Unfortunately, students frequently select songs for classroom use which are objectionable in some way making the song unusable.

2. Songs MUST have clear and understandable lyrics. Nothing is worse than a song almost nobody can understand. If you have trouble understanding the lyrics by listening, then another song needs to be selected.

3. Songs should have an appropriate theme. There’s enough bad news, negativity and violence in the world already. Songs with any type of negative theme should be avoided. There are plenty of positive, upbeat, even humorous songs available. Use these.

Music pervades virtually every aspect of our lives

Music pervades virtually every aspect of our lives. Students adore it. It contains numerous useful elements for language teaching and it’s fun for both the teacher and students. So, why not include music and songs in your language learning classes as well?

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/?expert=Larry_M._Lynch

By Larry M. Lynch

Material Auditivo No. 4: “Jim Carrey Steals the Grinch”

Jim Carrey makes two kinds of films. When they are funny the audience likes them. When they are serious the critics like them. His next film is Dr Seuss' How the Grinch Stole Christmas. Is Jim nervous about it? Is he worried about what people will think? The answer to both questions is . . . 'no'.

Jim Carrey was born in Ontario, Canada, in 1962. He left school when he was fifteen. He moved to Hollywood in the 1980s and worked as a comedian. 'I didn't have much money,' he remembered later. 'I wanted success. Once, I wrote myself a cheque for $7 million. I wanted to show myself – You will succeed!'

Jim was 32 years old, it was 1994 – success at last! Three films – Ace Ventura: Pet Detective, The Mask and Dumb and Dumber – suddenly made him world famous. Magazines called him 'The Funniest Man in the World'. Then he was the Riddler in Batman Forever (1995), and Ace Ventura again in When Nature Calls (1995). But then Jim had his first failure. Audiences stayed away from The Cable Guy (1996). They thought Jim was being too serious.

When he made Liar Liar (1997), Jim became 'The Funniest Man in the World' again. But he wanted more than this. He was not happy as just a funny actor. He wanted more serious parts. He won awards for The Truman Show (1998) – a big success – and Man on the Moon (1999) – a good film. The critics liked Man on the Moon, but it was not very successful.

Jim has returned to crazy comedy in Me, Myself and Irene (2000). Some critics don't like it at all. 'It makes fun of sick people,' they say. Jim Carrey doesn't agree. 'I don't understand the critics,' he says. 'It's a silly film, that's all.'

Dr Seuss' How the Grinch Stole Christmas opens in America on 17 November. It is about a creature who tries to stop people enjoying Christmas. It is a popular story with American children. Jim feels sure that people will like it – and everyone thinks it will be a big success. He is happy with life. He is in love with Renee Zellweger, his co-star in Me, Myself and Irene. Love is more important to him than success in films. And he has stopped thinking about being a serious actor. 'I'm a comedian,' he says. 'Comedians don't win serious awards.'

But in his heart Jim Carrey still dreams of winning an Oscar!

Material Auditivo No. 5: “Mobiles: useful or dangerous?”

Why are mobiles so popular? Because people love to talk to each other. And it is easier with a mobile phone. People think mobile phones are fun and useful. In countries like Russia and China, people use mobile phones in places where there is no ordinary telephone. Business people use mobiles when they’re travelling. In some countries, like Japan, many people use their mobile phones to send e-mail messages and access the Internet. They use a new kind of mobile phone called ‘i-mode’. You can even use a mobile phone to listen to music.

Mobile phones are very fashionable with teenagers. Parents buy mobile phones for their children. They can call home if they are in trouble and need help. So they feel safer. But teenagers mostly use them to keep in touch with their friends or play simple computer games. It’s cool to be the owner of a small, expensive mobile! As eighteen-year-old Londoner Rosie Farrer says, ‘Before, girls of my age smoked cigarettes to look good. Now we have mobiles!’ Rosie’s right. Research shows that teenage owners of mobile phones smoke less! Parents and schools are happy that teenagers are safer and smoke less. But they are worried about the possible problems of mobile phones.

There are now 750 million mobile phone users around the world. This number will probably grow to 1.4 billion in five years’ time. Many people dislike them. They hate it when the businessman opposite them on the train has a loud conversation on his phone. Or when mobile phones ring in a café or restaurant.

But there is a much more serious problem. We are not sure that mobiles are completely safe. It’s possible that mobiles can heat up the brain because we hold the phone so close to our head. Scientists fear that mobiles can perhaps be bad for your memory and even give you cancer. Because of these fears, some people use a ‘handsfree’ mobile – a phone that you needn’t hold to your ear. But it is possible that these are more dangerous. We just don’t know and many parents don’t give their younger children mobiles for this reason.

So why do we use mobiles when we aren’t sure they’re safe? Because mobiles are a lot of fun and very useful, we choose to forget the possible dangers. We choose to believe that mobiles are safe. Let’s hope we’re right!

Material Auditivo No. 6: Winter Festival -season of light

'Winter has a cold heart,' said the writer, Christina Rosetti. But is it a sad season? Not at all. For thousands of years, winter festivals have brought light and colour to the darkest time of year.

The earliest festival lights were candles. Romans tied them to trees for their Saturnalia festival. During Saturnalia week – 17 to 24 December – people gave each other gifts. And they couldn't work or fight wars. The Celts also used candles for their Imbolic festival, on 2 February. Imbolic was a celebration of light returning after winter. On festival day, candles were put in the windows of the family home. Outside, the men lit fires. The women were braver. They wore a crown of candles on their heads.

Some of today's festivals use this same tradition. The most famous of these is Sweden's Lucia's Day, on 13 December. Catholics say that Lucia was a young Roman girl. While she lived, her people were attacking Christians for their religion. Lucia felt sorry for the Christians and wanted to help. When night came, she wore a crown of candles. The Christians followed her crown of lights through tunnels under the ground and escaped. On Lucia's Day, the eldest daughter of the family wears a long white dress, a red sash and a crown of candles. She walks through the house and gives food and drink to other people in the family. Male children walk behind her. They carry silver stars and sing St. Lucia's song.

In the east, India's Diwali festival is also a celebration of light and colour. Diwali means 'night of lights' and celebrates the Hindu New Year. The festival lasts for five days. Indians fill their houses with candles, lamps and bright flowers. And they wish for happiness in the next year.

Candles are also important in the Jewish festival of Chanukah. It begins on 22 December and lasts for eight days. Every evening another candle is lit on the menorah (a traditional candle-stick). People give each other money and give children small gifts.

In western homes, decorating the Christmas tree is an old tradition. In the past people decorated trees with candles. But today people decorate their trees with yellow stars and balls of red, silver and gold.

Most churches also prefer candlelight for their Christmas festivals. England's 'Festival of Nine Lessons and Carols' from King's College, Cambridge, is a world-famous example. The festival starts at midnight on 24 December. Boys with candles walk slowly to the front of the church as they sing the first carol.

From east to west, winter brings cold weather and long nights. But its festivals all bring light, colour and warmth to people's homes. Everyone celebrates and hopes for a happy new year.

Anexo 6

Descripción de los verbos que denotan el nivel de pensamiento alcanzado por los estudiantes en cada nivel de la Taxonomía de Bloom

Conocimiento: permite recordar aspectos del material previamente aprendidos, así como traerlos a la mente.

Términos empleados: definir, describir, identificar, listar, enlazar, nombrar, ¿Qué?, ¿Dónde?, ¿Cuándo?, ¿Quién?

Comprensión: apropiación del significado del material; interpretación (explicar o resumir); predecir resultados y efectos (estimar tendencias futuras).

Términos empleados: convertir, defender, distinguir, explicar, generalizar, reescribir, clasificar, describir, discutir, expresar, identificar, indicar, localizar, reconocer, reportar, restablecer, resumir, seleccionar, traducir...

Aplicación: habilidad de utilizar el conocimiento aprendido en una nueva situación, aplicar reglas, leyes, métodos, teorías.

Términos empleados: cambiar, computar, demostrar, operar, mostrar, utilizar, solucionar, aplicar, dramatizar, emplear, ilustrar, interpretar, practicar, programar, bosquejar, escribir.

Análisis: desglosar en partes, organización de la comprensión, esclarecer, concluir.

Términos empleados: distinguir, diagramas, relacionar, resumir, desglosar, discriminar, subdividir, analizar, calcular, apreciar, categorizar, comparar, contrastar, criticar, diferenciar, examinar, experimentar, cuestionar.

Síntesis: habilidad de juntar las partes para formar un todo, comunicación única, sistema de relaciones abstractas.

Términos empleados: combinar, compilar, componer, crear, designar, reordenar, ordenar, reunir, coleccionar, construir, desarrollar, formular, organizar, planificar, preparar, proponer, establecer, escribir.

Evaluación: supone la habilidad de juzgar valores con propósitos determinados, basados en diversos criterios, y expresando razones concretas (sin adivinar).

Términos empleados: criticar, evaluar, comparar, apoyar, concluir, discriminar, contrastar, resumir, explicar, argumentar, rebatir criterios, acceder, adjuntar, seleccionar, defender criterios, estimar, juzgar, predecir, valorar, considerar.

Anexo 7

Registros anecdóticos para la validación del sistema de tareas con enfoque metodológico

Objetivo: Describir el comportamiento de los estudiantes durante la aplicación de del sistema de tareas con enfoque metodológico para desarrollar la comprensión auditiva en PILI 1 en la formación del profesorado de idiomas en Cienfuegos.

Aspectos registrados:

• El entrenamiento de los alumnos en la utilización de estrategias holísticas y atomísticas para el desarrollo de la comprensión auditiva con enfoque metodológico.

• Estimulación de la respuesta auditiva ante los contenidos de los materiales y las tareas elaboradas de acuerdo a las sugerencias metodológicas para cada etapa del proceso auditivo.

• Integración de los aspectos lingüísticos y los fundamentos metodológicos de la comprensión auditiva en Lengua Inglesa.

• Vivencias y exploración de la comprensión auditiva teniendo en cuenta los elementos metodológicos del proceso de comprensión auditiva.

• Comportamiento de los estudiantes ante la presencia de tareas docentes con enfoque metodológico en PILI 1.

Anexo 8

Encuesta a estudiantes para validar la efectividad del sistema de tareas con enfoque metodológico

Objetivo: Evaluar en qué medida la aplicación del sistema de tareas con enfoque metodológico para desarrollar la comprensión auditiva en PILI 1 fue efectiva o no.

La siguiente encuesta forma parte de la etapa final de validación de una investigación que se lleva a cabo dirigida a mejorar nuestro trabajo con relación al desarrollo de la habilidad de comprensión auditiva con enfoque metodológico en su formación como docente de inglés. Le rogamos se tome su tiempo y responda las preguntas que a continuación se relacionan con absoluta sinceridad.

1. ¿Consideras que el desarrollo de la comprensión auditiva en inglés después de la aplicación del sistema de tareas en tu caso personal…

a) Mejoró

b) Se mantiene igual

c) Empeoró?

¿Por qué?

2. ¿Consideras que la puesta en práctica del sistema de tareas con enfoque metodológico que te ha facilitado el profesor para el desarrollo de la comprensión auditiva en PILI 1 te propicia…

a) mayor participación en clases

b) igual participación en clases

c) menor participación?

3. ¿Consideras que después de la puesta en práctica de las estrategias holísticas y atomísticas para el desarrollo de la comprensión auditiva tu vocabulario…

a) mejoró

b) se mantiene igual

c) empeoró?

4. Consideras que tu preparación metodológica para enfrentar el proceso docente en el aula después de la aplicación del sistema de tareas para desarrollar la comprensión auditiva con enfoque metodológico en PILI 1

a) mejoró

b) se mantiene igual

c) empeoró

¿Por qué?

5. ¿Consideras que las relaciones interpersonales y afectivas en el grupo después de aplicado el sistema de tareas con enfoque metodológico…

a) ha mejorado

b) se mantienen igual

c) ha empeorado.

Anexo 9

Gráfico descriptivo del proceso de validación práctica del sistema de tareas

Anexo 10

Modelo de aprendizaje basado en tareas según Willis (1996)

Anexo 11

SISTEMA DE TAREAS

Tema 1: Teaching Listening

Etapa pre-auditiva / pre-tarea: (CONOCIMIENTO)

• ¿Cuáles son en su consideración las habilidades básicas del idioma inglés?

• Defina la habilidad auditiva de acuerdo a sus conocimientos sobre el tema.

• Elabore un esquema gráfico que contenga sus consideraciones esenciales sobre la comprensión auditiva como habilidad.

Etapa auditiva / Ciclo de la tarea:

7. Select the main idea of the listening material according to what you hear. (ANÁLISIS)

a) ____ Evolution of listening in language teaching.

b) ____ The exact amount of time a student spends in listening to in-school information.

c) ____ General considerations about the teaching-learning process of listening comprehension

1.1 Taking the previous activity as a sample task, make an activity in which you ask your classmates to summarise the main ideas presented in the listening material.

8. Listen to the following material related to the teaching of listening in the language classroom. Determine whether the statements presented below are true or false. (COMPRENSIÓN)

a) ___ Listening is the language modality that is hardly used in the communication process.

b) ___ Language learners are aware of the level of effort that goes into developing listening skills.

c) ___ Language learning requires intentional listening that employs strategies for identifying sounds and making meaning from them.

d) ___ The listening process involves the presence of a sender, a message and a receiver.

2.2 After developing the activity, try elaborating two more statements for your classmates to find out whether they are true or false according to the information presented.

9. Complete the paragraph using the missing words as you listen to the material. (ANÁLISIS)

Given the ___________ of listening in language __________ and __________ is essential for language teachers to help their students become __________ listeners. In the ____________ approach to language teaching, this means modelling listening ___________ and providing listening ____________ in authentic situations: those that learners are likely to ___________ when they use the language ____________ the classroom.

3.2 Think about a possible task where your classmates have to listen to and complete missing words. Once you read the material, elaborate a concrete task for your classmates to complete it in the next Integrated English Practice Lesson.

Etapa post-auditiva/ Práctica del lenguaje:

10. Prepare an oral report where you review the main aspects related to teaching listening presented in the material. (COMPRENSIÓN)

4.1 Once you have written your last draft for the oral report, prepare questions for your classmates so they have to listen carefully to your presentation and respond to communication.

11. What do you agree or disagree with in terms of teaching listening? State your own opinion in a paragraph. (EVALUACIÓN)

5.1 Make two columns where you list down your agreements and disagreements related to teaching listening. Ask your classmates to select and item and write a paragraph with their own opinions.

12. Criticize the author’s point of view about teaching listening comprehension in the foreign language classroom. (EVALUACIÓN)

6.1- Encourage your classmates to discuss about the critics you made to the author’s point of view about teaching listening.

Tema 2: Be an effective listener!

Etapa pre-auditiva/ Pre-tarea: (CONOCIMIENTO)

• Listening is a receptive skill which students need to develop accuracy in the language usage. Do you consider learners need to be effective while developing this language skill?

• What is effectiveness for you?

• Do you know what a barrier to listening is?

• Do you think listening is a master skill?

Etapa auditiva/ Ciclo de la tarea:

8. Listen to the material and select the main idea. (ANÁLISIS)

___ Listening comprehension development is tantamount to breathing - automatic.

___ Learners need to be effective listeners and identify possible barriers to listening.

___ Barriers to listening

1.1 Taking the task above as a sample activity, would you make a possible task for developing listening for details at this stage of the listening process?

9. Listen to the material again and identify the reasons why listening is considered a master skill by Schilling. (COMPRENSIÓN)

2.1 Have your students listen to the material, but before provide them with a matching activity where they can identify the reasons why listening is a master skill in English.

10. Listen to the material again and identify the possible barriers to listening according to what you hear. (COMPRENSIÓN)

3.1 Think about a list of other barriers, and make an activity in which your classmates have to discriminate among a series of statements given.

11. Listen to the material, this time say whether the following statements are True (T) or False (F). (COMPRENSIÓN)

a) ____ Listening is usually taught at schools.

b) ____ When you are listening, you take time to listen to every detail.

c) ____ Technology has erected new barriers to listening.

4.1 Think about two other possible items which you can include in the list of statements given, try to make them negatively, so you can design an activity in which your classmates have to justify their answers. Follow task 4 as a sample activity.

12. Organise the events in the order they were presented according to what you hear. (ANÁLISIS)

____ The barriers to listening include technology.

____ According to Schilling, the scarcity of good listeners is self-perpetuating.

____ A situation presenting what happened to five educated and successful professional women.

5.1. Try to make a similar task in which you jumble the paragraphs in the text so your classmates have to listen to them and organise them in the order they are presented.

Etapa Post-audición/ Práctica del lenguaje:

13. Summarise in a chart the main barriers to listening that were mentioned in the material. (APLICACIÓN)

6.1 Suggest a possible task where your classmates have to make a report on what they have already summarised from the material.

14. According to Schilling (2002) Technology has erected new barriers to listening. Can you give your own impressions about the use of technology for the development of listening comprehension in school programs? (EVALUACIÓN)

7.1 Make a negative statement about the content of the listening material. Have your classmates discuss their ideas and opinions about it.

Tema 3: “Using Popular Songs to Improve Language Listening Comprehension Skills”

Etapa pre-auditiva/ Pre-tarea: (CONOCIMIENTO)

• Have the students brainstorm about teaching means in the EFL classroom.

• Have the students answer the following questions:

d) What teaching means do you usually use in your EFL classroom?

e) Out of those teaching means, which ones do you usually use for the development of listening comprehension?

f) Have you ever used songs to develop listening comprehension in your students?

• Have the students listen to the first part of the material and answer the questions made by the author.

Etapa auditiva/ Ciclo de la tarea:

7. Listen to the material and determine whether the following statements are contained or not in the material. (COMPRENSIÓN)

____ The role of music in the lives of people.

____ The factors that affect the listening process.

____ The factors that contribute to the listening comprehension of a song.

____ Some considerations about using songs in the EFL classroom.

____ The criteria for the selection of songs to improve the students listening comprehension skills.

1.1 Try adding five more statements and have your classmates identify if they are included or not in the listening material.

8. Listen to the material again, then make these statements true. (APLICACIÓN)

a) As young children, people don’t like to play, sing or dance to a myriad of nursery rhymes.

b) When identifying the factors that contribute to the listening comprehension process of a song, we cannot mention the pronunciation and accent of the singer.

c) Do not use songs which are popular in your lessons.

2.2 Write three more statements in which your classmates have to make them true, take as a start point the ones provided in the task.

9. Listen to the material again, this time say whether the following statements are true or false according to what you hear. (COMPRENSIÓN)

____ Almost everyone dislikes music.

____ Music pervades television, movies, therter, and even the nighthly news.

____ Students always select songs for classroom use which are objectionable in some way making the song unusable.

3.1 Add three more statements to the list of items given in this task, take the ones provided as sample items.

10. Listen to the material again; determine the main factors contributing to listening comprehension through songs. (SÍNTESIS)

4.1 Have your classmates come up with other factors that can contribute to the listening comprehension process through the application of song in the EFL classroom, and be ready to discuss about them in class.

11. Listen to the very last part of the material, and take out the selection criteria should be taken into consideration to use songs for developing listening comprehension in the EFL classroom. (ANÁLISIS)

5.1 Make three other items which can be included in the list provided in the task, have your classmates select the appropriate ones and discuss about the other.

Etapa Post-audición/ Práctica del lenguaje:

12. As Lynch says in the last part of the material: “Music pervades virtually every aspect of our lives. Students adore it. It contains numerous elements for language teaching and it’s fun for both the teacher and students”. Prepare a written report in which you give your opinions about this statement. (EVALUACIÓN)

6.1 Design a group task in which your classmates have to argue about the statement presented and report orally their written works.

Tema 4: “Jim Carrey steals the Grinch”

Etapa pre-auditiva/ Pre-tarea: (CONOCIMIENTO)

• Identify the man in the first picture; try to recognise him before presenting the second photo as well.

Photo # 1 Photo # 2

• Answer the following questions

d) Who are your favourite actors?

e) Have you ever heard about Jim Carrey?

f) How many films have you seen in which Jim Carrey has taken participation?

Etapa auditiva/ Ciclo de la tarea:

1. Listen to the material, and select the main idea. (COMPRENSIÓN)

a. ___ Jim Carrey’s childhood.

b. ___ Jim Carrey’s style while playing roles in his movies.

c. ___ Important facts about Jim Carrey’s life.

1.2 Provide the class a similar activity where the students have to identify the supporting ideas of the material after listening to it.

2. Listen to the first two paragraphs of the material, and say whether the following statements are True (T) or False (F). (COMPRENSIÓN)

i. ___ Jim Carrey makes only one type of films.

ii. ___Jim is not nervous about his next film: Dr Seuss' How the Grinch Stole Christmas.

iii. ___ Jim Carrey was born in England.

2.1 Provide two other false statements and ask your classmates to back up their answers with the reasons why they say the items are false.

9. Listen to the third paragraph of the listening material and determine how magazines used to call Jim Carrey. (COMPRENSIÓN)

3.1 Select any other specific information provided in the material, and have the students listen for details in an activity like the sample task in this item.

10. Listen to the third and fourth paragraphs and determine the years in which the following movies were made. (ANÁLISIS)

i. Batman Forever: ________

ii. When nature calls: ________

iii. The Cable Guy: ________

4.1 Provide three other titles of movies in which Jim Carrey has acted. Have your students listen to the material and identify the years in which they were made.

11. Listen to the third and fourth paragraphs again and say True (T) or False (F) according to what you hear. (COMPRENSIÓN)

1. ___ Jim was 32 years old when he succeeded in 1994.

2. ___ One of Jims successful films was The Mask.

3. ___ Magazines used to call Jim Carrey “The funniest man in the World”

4. ___ Jim played the role of Ace Ventura in Batman Forever.

5. ___ The critics liked Man on the Moon, but it was not very successful.

5.1 Provide four other statements so the students can identify whether they are true or false. Make sure you combine both true and false items.

12. Listen to the last part of the material and complete in the blank spaces with the words from the list. (APLICACIÓN)

Jim feels sure that _______ will like it – and everyone thinks it will be a big success. He is ________ with life. He is in love with Renee Zellweger, his co-star in Me, Myself and Irene. _______ is more _____________ to him than success in ______. And he has stopped thinking about being a ________ actor. 'I'm a comedian,' he says. “________ don't win serious awards.'

List: happy, Comedians, Love, people, serious, important, films.

6.1 Using the paragraph provided in this task, ask your classmates to complete other pieces of information without providing a list of words.

Etapa Post-audición/ Práctica del lenguaje:

13. Working in pairs, develop the following situation. (APLICACIÓN)

Student A Student B

You are a student of English at the University of Pedagogical Sciences in Cienfuegos, and you are having a talk on Jim Carey’s life. Give Student B your opinions about his type of movies, say whether you agree or not with his way of making humoristic roles. You are having a talk with Student A, support or oppose the ideas he/she is presenting about Jim Carrey and his comedian way. Give your own opinions, and agree or disagree with him/her.

7.1 Following the speaking activity provided as a sample task, prepare a similar situation in which your classmates have to use the information provided in the material to give a talk on it.

14. Make a written summary where you state your opinion about Jim Carrey. (EVALUACIÓN)

8.1 Suggest a possible task where your classmates have to make a report on what they have already summarised from the material.

Tema 5: Mobiles: useful or dangerous?

Etapa pre-auditiva/ Pre-tarea: (CONOCIMIENTO)

• En esta etapa de la comprensión, el profesor realizará una lluvia de ideas (Brainstorming) de manera tal que los estudiantes activen su conocimiento previo sobre el tema que presenta el material.

Varios de los temas que se pueden tratar pueden estar relacionados con la telefonía pública, privada y móvil.

Etapa auditiva/ Ciclo de la tarea:

10. Listen to the first paragraph and tick the information that is mentioned on the material. (COMPRENSIÓN)

___ The reasons why mobiles are so popular.

___ All types of mobiles existing nowadays.

___ What people can do with mobile phones.

1.1 Make a similar activity to the one provided. Remember to include items which are not related to the material so the students can identify the ones that are mentioned.

11. Listen again, and select the true statements according to what you hear. (COMPRENSIÓN)

___ People like to talk to each other on the phone.

___ In Russia and China, people use mobile phones in places where there is no ordinary telephone.

___ In China, many people use mobiles to send e-mail messages.

___ Mobiles can be used to listen to music.

2.1 Make five more items so your classmates can listen again and determine which of them are true. Remember to include false statements in your list.

12. Listen to the second paragraph and match the words on the left column with its meaning on the right column. (SÍNTESIS)

a) Mobile ____ Something that is on fashion

b) Fashionable ____ The opposite of cheap.

c) Expensive ____ Someone who studies the science.

d) Scientist ____ A type of cordless telephone

3.1 Following the example in the task above, prepare an activity to work with vocabulary through context, so the students can listen and determine meaning at the same time.

13. Listen again, and say Right or Wrong according to what you hear. (COMPRENSIÓN)

___ Mobiles are very fashionable with adolescents.

___ Children cannot have mobile phones.

___ Children feel safer with a mobile phone.

___ Teenagers use mobiles to play computer games.

___ Teenagers owners of mobile phones smoke more!

4.1 Provide three other statements and make a similar activity to the one provided.

14. Listen to the third and fourth paragraphs, and correct the statements below. (APLICACIÓN)

There are more than 650 million mobile phone users around the world.

We are sure that mobiles are completely safe.

Scientists fear that mobiles can perhaps be bad for their memory.

5.1 Provide three other statements containing wrong information about the use of mobiles. Have your classmates/students complete a similar task to the one provided.

15. Listen to the fourth paragraph again, and determine the correct definition for the following word. (APLICACIÓN)

“Handsfree” mobile

a) ___ a cordless phone

b) ___ a phone you do not need to hold to your ear

c) ___ a cell phone

6.1 Following the activity above a sample model, prepare two other items to work with vocabulary during the listening process.

Etapa Post-audición/ Práctica del lenguaje:

16. After listening to the material about mobile phones; would you mention some of their uses? (APLICACIÓN)

7.1 Make a task in which your students have to summarise the main aspects related to mobile phones that are presented in the text. Have them mention some of their uses.

17. Develop the following pair-work (APLICACIÓN)

Student A Student B

You need to buy a new mobile phone and you are wondering what its advantages are. Ask for information about mobiles’ uses. You work at a store, give information about mobiles and suggest a special type of mobile phones

8.1 Taking the task above as a model make a similar situation in which students have to use information about mobiles to advertise handsfree telephones.

18. Prepare an oral presentation where you state your opinions about mobile phones and be ready to comment your ideas in class. (EVALUACIÓN)

Tema 6: Winter Festival -season of light

Etapa pre-auditiva/ Pre-tarea: (CONOCIMIENTO)

• Answer the following questions:

(e) Do you know what a Festival is?

(f) What festivals do you know about?

(g) Do you like Festival at all?

(h) Can you mention any Festivals developed here in Cuba?

Etapa auditiva/ Ciclo de la tarea:

7. Listen to the first part of the material (First and second paragraphs). Tick the information that is mentioned in the text. (COMPRENSIÓN)

___ Why Winter is not a sad season.

___ What earliest Festivals lights were.

___ What Brazilians used to do when having a Festival.

1.1 Make a list of at least 4 new statements, and have your students determine the ideas that are contained in the listening material.

8. Listen again. Say True (T) or False (F). (COMPRENSIÓN)

a) ___ “Winter has a cold heart”

b) ___ Winter Festivals have brought light and colour to the darkest time of year.

c) ___ The earliest Festivals lights were lamps.

d) ___ Romans celebrated the Imbolic Festivals.

e) ___ Imbolic was a celebration of light returning after winter.

2.1 Provide three other items, and make a similar task to the one above.

9. Listen to the fourth paragraph and complete in the blanks with the words from the list. (APLICACIÓN)

List: flowers, houses, east, year, celebration, colour, festival.

In the ______, India's Diwali festival is also a ___________ of light and ________. Diwali means 'night of lights' and celebrates the Hindu New Year. The _______

lasts for five days. Indians fill their __________ with candles, lamps and bright ________. And they wish for happiness in the next _______.

3.1 Select any other paragraph from the text, and make a similar activity to the one provided in this item.

10. Listen to the last part of the material and say Right or Wrong. (COMPRENSIÓN)

a) ___Candles are very important in the Jewish Festivals of Chanukah.

b) ___ In western homes, decorating the Christmas tree is an old tradition.

c) ___ Christmas Festivals starts on December 24th.

d) ___ Winter brings cold weather and long nights from east to west.

4.1 Working with the last part of the material, make an activity where the students have to make “true” three false statements you are providing.

11. Listen again to the whole material and match the Festivals and the places where they are celebrated. (SÍNTESIS)

Column A

a) Romans

b) Celts

c) Indians

d) Chanukah

e) Cambridge, England

f) Western homes.

Column B

___ Jewish Festivals

___ England’s Festivals of 9 lesson and Caroline

___ Saturnalia Festival

___ Dwali Festival

___ Christmas Festivals

___ Imbolic Festivals

5.1 Make an activity where the students have to summarise the names of the countries where Winter Festivals are held every year. Follow the task in this item as a sample activity.

Etapa Post-audición/ Práctica del lenguaje:

12. Select any of the Festivals above, describe how you imagine them after you have listened to the text. Prepare an oral report about it. (EVALUACIÓN)

6.1 Have your students state their opinions about winter festivals in a spoken form.

7. Imagine that you are taking participation in a Christmas Festival. Invite someone to come along. (APLICACIÓN)

7.1 Following this task as a sample, make a communicative activity in which your students have to judge winter festivals taking into consideration what they like and dislike about them.


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