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John Maynard Keynes ( 1883-1946 )

Nace en Cambridge. Hijo de John Neville Keynes, estudia en Eton y en el Kings College de Cambridge. Se gradúa en matemáticas y se especializa en economía estudiando con Alfred Marshall y Arthur Cecil Pigou. Entra como funcionario del India Office en 1906. Permanece dos años en Asia hasta que en 1908 entra como profesor de Economía en Cambridge, puesto que mantiene hasta hasta 1915. En 1916 ingresa en el Tesoro británico donde ocupa cargos importantes. Representa a este organismo en la Conferencia de Paz de París, puesto del que dimite en 1919 por estar en contra del régimen de reparaciones que se estaba imponiendo a Alemania. Vuelve a Cambridge como profesor, simultaneando su trabajo docente con actividades privadas en empresas de seguros e inversiones lo que le proporciona importantes ingresos. Critica la política deflacionista del gobierno y se opone inútilmente a la vuelta al patrón oro.

John Maynard Keynes

En la década de los años treinta los países de occidente sufrieron la más grave crisis económica conocida hasta la fecha: la Gran Depresión. El marginalismo no estaba capacitado para explicar ese fenómeno. En 1936 John Maynard Keynes publica su Teoría General de la Ocupación, el Interés y el Dinero, el libro que, sin duda alguna, ha influido de forma más profunda en la forma de vida de las sociedades industriales tras la segunda Guerra Mundial. Las decisiones de ahorro las toman unos individuos en función de sus ingresos mientras que las decisiones de inversión las toman los empresarios en función de sus expectativas. No hay ninguna razón por la que ahorro e inversión deban coincidir. Cuando las expectativas de los empresarios son favorables, grandes volúmenes de inversión provocan una fase expansiva. Cuando las expectativas son desfavorables la contracción de la demanda puede provocar una depresión. El Estado puede impedir la caída de la demanda aumentando sus propios gastos.

Durante la segunda guerra mundial Keynes se reincorpora al Tesoro. En 1944 encabeza la delegación británica en la Conferencia de Bretton Woods de la que surgirán el Banco Mundial y el Fondo Monetario Internacional. Muere dos años después, en 1946, en Sussex.

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Desde aquí puede comprar a través de Internet, utilizando los servicios de Amazon, las siguientes obras de Keynes en español:

OBRAS

  • "The Recent Economic Events in India", 1909, EJ

  • "Principal Averages and Laws of Error which Lead to Them", 1911, J of Royal Statis Soc

  • "Influence of Parental Alcoholism", 1911, J of Royal Statis Soc

  • "Irving Fisher's Purchasing Power of Money", 1911, EJ

  • "W.S. Jevons's Theory of Political Economy", 1912, EJ

  • "The Foreign Trade of the UK at Prices of 1900", 1912, EJ

  • "J.A. Hobson's Gold, Prices and Wages", 1913, EJ

  • Indian Currency and Finance , 1913.

  • "Ludwig von Mises' Theorie des Geldes", 1914, EJ

  • "The Prospects of Money", 1914, EJ

  • "War and the Financial System", 1914, EJ

  • "The City of London and the Bank of England", 1914, QJE

  • "Walter Bagehot's Works and Life", 1915, EJ

  • "The Economics of War in Germay", 1915, EJ

  • The Economic Consequences of the Peace , 1919. Las Consecuencias Económicas de la Paz

  • "Ralph G. Hawtrey's Currency and Credit", 1920, EJ

  • A Treatise on Probability, 1921.

  • Revision of the Treaty, 1922.

  • "The Inflation of Currency as a Method of Taxation", 1922, MGCRE

  • A Tract on Monetary Reform, 1923. Breve Tratado Sobre La Reforma Monetaria

  • "Some Aspects of Commodity Markets", 1923, Manchester Guardian

  • "A Reply to Sir William Beveridge's Population and Unemployment", 1923, EJ.

  • "Population and Unemployment", 1923, EJ

  • "The Measure of Deflation: an inquiry into index numbers", 1923, N&A

  • "Mr. Bonar Law", 1923, N&A

  • "Currency Policy and Unemployment", 1923, N&A

  • "Does Unemployment Need a Drastic Remedy?", 1924, N&A

  • "Edwin Montagu", 1924, N&A

  • "Alfred Marshall, 1842-1924", 1924, EJ and Memorials of Alfred Marshall, 1925.

  • "Monetary Reform", with E. Cannan, Addis and Milner, 1924, EJ

  • "A Comment on Professor Cannan", 1924, EJ

  • "The Gold Standard Act", 1925, EJ

  • "The Balfour Note and Inter-Allied Debts", 1925, N&A

  • The Economic Consequences of Mr. Churchill, 1925.

  • A Short View of Russia, 1925.

  • "Am I a Liberal?", 1925, N&A

  • The End of Laissez-Faire, 1926.

  • "Liberalism and Labour", 1926, N&A

  • Laissez Faire and Communism, 1926.

  • "Francis Ysidro Edgeworth", 1926, EJ

  • "Trotsky on England", 1926, N&A

  • "A Note on Economy", 1927, N&A

  • "A Model Form for Statements of International Balances", 1927, EJ

  • "The British Balance of Trade", 1927, EJ

  • "The United States Balance of Trade", 1928, EJ

  • "Amalgamation of the British Note Issue", 1928, EJ

  • "Postwar Depression in the Lancashire Cotton Industry", 1928, J of Royal Statistical Society

  • "Lord Oxford", 1928, N&A

  • "The Great Villiers Connection", 1928, N&A

  • Réflexions sur le franc, 1928.

  • "The French Stabilisation Law", 1928, EJ

  • "Frederic C. Mills' Behavior of Prices", 1928, EJ

  • "The War Debts", 1928, N&A

  • "A Rejoinder to Ohlin's The Reparation Problem", 1929, EJ

  • Can Lloyd George Do It? with H.D. Henderson, 1929.

  • "Winston Churchill", 1929, N&A

  • A Treatise on Money , two volumes, 1930.

  • "The Industrial Crisis", 1930, N&A

  • "The Great Slump of 1930", 1930, N&A

  • "Economic Possibilities for Our Grandchildren", 1930, N&A and Saturday Evening Post.

  • "Frank P. Ramsey", 1930, EJ and 1931, NSN

  • "A Rejoinder to D.H. Robertson, 1931, EJ

  • "Spending and Saving", 1931, The Listener

  • "The Problem of Unemployment", 1931, The Listener

  • "On the Eve of Gold Suspension", 1931, Evening Standard

  • "The End of the Gold Standard", 1931, Sunday Express

  • "After the Suspension of Gold", 1931, Times

  • "Proposals for a Revenue Tariff", 1931, NSN

  • "Some Consequences of the Economy Report", 1931, NSN

  • Essays in Persuasion, 1931

  • "The World's Economic Outlook" , 1932, Atlantic Monthly

  • "The Prospects of the Sterling Exchange", 1932, Yale Review

  • "The Dilemma of Modern Socialism", 1932, Political Quarterly

  • "Member Bank Reserves in the United States", 1932, EJ

  • The World's Economic Crisis and the Way of Escape with A. Salter, J. Stamp, B. Blackett, H. Clay and W. Beveridge, 1932.

  • "Saving and Usury", 1932, EJ

  • "A Note on the Long-Term Rate of Interest in Relation to the Conversion Scheme", 1932, EJ

  • "A Monetary Theory of Production", 1933, in Festschrift für Arthur Spiethoff.

  • "Mr. Robertson on Saving and Hoarding", 1933, EJ

  • "An Open Letter to President Roosevelt", 1933, New York Times

  • "The Means to Prosperity", 1933, Times

  • "National Self-Sufficiency", 1933, Yale Review

  • "The Multiplier", 1933, NSN

  • Essays in Biography, 1933

  • The Means to Prosperity, 1933.

  • "Commemoration of T.R. Malthus", 1935, EJ

  • "The Future of the Foreign Exchange", 1935, Lloyds Bank Review

  • "William Stanley Jevons", 1936, JRSS

  • "Herbert Somerton Foxwell", 1936, EJ

  • "The Supply of Gold", 1936, EJ

  • "Fluctuations in Net Investment in the United States", 1936, EJ

  • General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money , 1936.
     

    Teoría General de la Ocupación, el Interés y el Dinero

  • "The General Theory of Empoyment", 1937, QJE -

  • "Professor Pigou on Money Wages in Relation to Unemployment", with N. Kaldor, EJ

  • "Alternative Theories of the Rate of Interest", 1937, EJ

  • "The Ex Ante Theory of the Rate of Interest", EJ

  • "The Theory of the Rate of Interest", 1937, in Lessons of Monetary Experience: In honor of Irving Fisher

  • "Some Economic Consequences of a Declining Population", 1937, Eugenics Review

  • "Comments on Mr. Robertson's `Mr Keynes and Finance'", 1938, EJ.

  • "Storage and Security", 1938, NSN.

  • "The Policy of Government Storage of Foodstuffs and Raw Materials", 1938, EJ

  • "Mr. Keynes's Consumption Function: A reply", 1938, QJE - reply to Holden (1938).

  • "Mr Keynes on the Distribution of Income and the Propensity to Consume: A reply", 1939, RES

  • "Adam Smith as Student and Professor", 1938, EJ

  • "Introduction to David Hume, An Abstract of a Treatise on Human Nature", with P. Sraffa, 1938.

  • "James E. Meade's Consumers' Credits and Unemployment", 1938, EJ

  • "The Process of Capital Formation", 1939, EJ

  • "Professor Tinbergen's Method", 1939, EJ

  • "Relative Movements of Real Wages and Output", 1939, EJ

  • "The Income and Fiscal Potential of Great Britain", 1939, EJ

  • "The Concept of National Income: Supplementary note", 1940, EJ

  • How to Pay for the War: A radical plan for the Chancellor of the Exchequer, 1940.

  • "The Objective of International Price Stability", 1943, EJ.

  • "Mary Paley Marshall", 1944, EJ

  • "The Balance of Payments of the United States", 1946, EJ

  • "Newton the Man", 1947, Newton Tercentenary Celebrations, 1947.

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