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Sir W. Arthur Lewis ( 1915-1990 )

Premio Nobel nobel_25.gif (2335 bytes)1979

Economista britnico, nacido en Santa Luca, en las Antillas, obtuvo el Premio Nobel de Economa en 1979, compartido con Theodore W. Schultz, por su investigacin pionera en el desarrollo econmico con atencin particular a los problemas de los pases en desarrollo.

Sir W. Arthur LewisEstudi en el St. Mary's College de santa Luca y en la London School of Economics, donde obtuvo el doctorado en 1940.Fue profesor en las Universidades de Londres, Manchester, West India, y Princeton. Fue asesor de la Comisin Econmica de las Naciones Unidas para Asia y el Lejano Oriente y Presidente del Banco de Desarrollo del Caribe.

Sir W. Arthur Lewis analiza los pases en desarrollo y pone de relieve su dualidad: Hay en ellos dos sectores econmicos claramente diferenciados, el rural y el urbano. En el sector urbano, la productividad del trabajo es mucho mayor que en el campo. Eso permite que haya ahorro e inversin por lo que aumentar de forma sostenida la demanda de trabajadores. Esa demanda puede ser satisfecha sin que aparezcan tensiones salariales ya que hay una oferta de trabajo infinitamente elstica procedente de las zonas rurales.

El supuesto bsico del modelo de Lewis es que el sector rural est superpoblado y la productividad del trabajo es muy baja. La productividad marginal del trabajo rural es prcticamente nula, lo que significa que la emigracin de trabajadores del campo a la ciudad no provoca disminucin del producto agrcola.

Se produce as en el sector urbano un "crculo virtuoso" ahorro > inversin > empleo que no se ve interrumpido por tensiones salariales ni por falta de trabajadores, por lo que el crecimiento del sector industrial-urbano est garantizado hasta que el sector rural de baja productividad quede despoblado, lo que implicar el final de la situacin de subdesarrollo.

OBRAS

  • La planeacin econmica, 1949. Ed. Fondo de Cultura Econmica, Mxico, 1942.

  • Teora del desarrollo econmico, 1955. Fondo de Cultura Econmica, Mxico 1968.

  • Labour in the West Indies, 1939.

  • Economic Problems of Today, 1940.

  • "The Two-Part Tariff", 1941, Economica

  • "The Economics of Loyalty", 1942, Economica

  • "Monopoly and the Law", 1943, Modern Law Review

  • "Competition in Retailing", 1945, Economica

  • Monopoly in British Industry, 1945.

  • "Fixed Costs", 1946, Economica

  • "The Prospect Before Us", 1948, Manchester School

  • "Colonial Development", 1949, Transactions of Manchester Statistical Society

  • "The British Monopolies Act", 1949, Manchester School

  • "TheEffects of the Overseas Slump on the British Economy", with F.v. Meyer, 1949, Manchester School

  • "Sur Quelques Tendences Seculaires", 1949, Economie Appliquee

  • Economic Survey, 1919-39, 1949.

  • Overhead Costs, 1949.

  • Principles of Economic Planning, 1949.

  • "World Production, Prices and Trade, 1870-1960", 1952, Manchester School

  • "Economic Development with Unlimited Supplies of Labor", 1954, Manchester School

  • "Thoughts on Land Settlement", 1954, J of Agric Econ

  • "Trade Drives", 1954, District Bank Review

  • "Secular Swings in Production and Trade, 1870-1913", with P.J. O'Leary, 1955, Manchester School.

  • The Theory of Economic Growth, 1955.

  • "Patterns of Public Revenue and Expenditure", with A. Martin, 1956, Manchester School

  • "International Competition in Manufactures", 1957, AER

  • "Unlimited Labor: Further notes", 1958, Manchester School

  • "Employment Policy in an Underdeveloped Area", 1958, Social and Economic Studies

  • "The Shifting Fortunes of Agriculture", 1960, in Agriculture and its Terms of Trade

  • "Depreciation and Obsolescence as Factors in Costing", 1961, in Meij, editor, Depreciation and Replacement Policy

  • "Education and Economic Development", 1961, Social and Economic Studies

  • "Education for Scientific Professions in the Poor Countries", 1962, Daedalus

  • "Industrialization and Social Peace", 1963 in Conference Across a Continent

  • "Secondary Education and Economic Structure", 1964, Social and Economic Studies

  • "A Review of Economic Development", 1965, AER

  • Politics in West Africa, 1965.

  • "Unemployment in Developing Countries", 1967, World Today

  • Some Aspects of Economic Development

  • "Economic Aspects of Quality in Education", 1969, in Beeby, editor, Qualitative Aspects of Educational Planning

  • Aspects of Tropical Trade, 1883-1965, 1969.

  • Socialism and Economic Growth, 1971.

  • The Evolution of Foreign Aid, 1972.

  • "Reflections on Unlimited Labour", 1972, in diMarco, editor, International Economics and Development

  • "Objective and Prognostications", 1972, in Ranis, editor, Gap Between Rich and Poor Nations

  • Development Economics: an outline, 1974.

  • The University in Less Developed Countries, 1974.

  • "Development and Distribution", 1976, in Cairncross and Puri, editors, Employment, Income Distribution and Development Strategy

  • The Less Developed Countries and Stable Exchange Rates, 1978.

  • The Evolution of the International Economic Order, 1978.

  • Growth and Fluctuations, 1870-1913, 1978.

  • "The Dual Economy Revisited", 1979, Manchester School

  • "The Slowing Down of the Engine of Growth: Nobel Lecture", 1980, AER.

  • "The Rate of Growth of World Trade, 1830-1973", 1981, in Grassman and Lundberg, editors, World Economic Order

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